New Zealand Wedding Traditions
Marriage within traditional Māori society was shaped by the importance of family In the early 20th century the majority continued to follow tradition. After a Supreme Court decision in that year, New Zealand's legal system. New Zealand relationships, marriages, and family life. Dating in New Zealand may begin at school, through friends, or in any number of other settings. altered , but the ceremony is similar depending on the church and religion of the couple. Civil wedding ceremonies are also a marriage option for New Zealand couples and these have their own customs dating back to the 19th century when settlers.
Other symbols tend to be commercial or cultural and are of Maori origin. The national airline has a stylized Koru fern leafall the national sports teams have a fern leaf, the feathered cloak of a Maori chief is used on ceremonial occasions, and haka is performed before international rugby matches.
The kiwi, a flightless, nocturnal bird unique to New Zealand, is the symbol for everything from New Zealand. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Maori have a commemorative and oral history whose major instrument of record is the genealogy whakapapawhich is recorded in the structure of the marae meeting house and in the moko tattoo worn by many Maori.
Maori history features ties with ancestors and with the land. Ineast coast North Island tribes raided the west coast tribes. Inthe chief Hongi Hiki visited England, and secured muskets and ammunition.
Culture of New Zealand - history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage
Upon his return, there began the "Musket Wars" on South Island. A state of tribal unrest and migration set in, and the s was distinguished by the appearance of many Maori prophet-military leaders such as Te Rauparaha.
However, there were no plans for British settlement untilwhen the New Zealand Company was ordered to establish British rule. The first settlers arrived inthe year of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. The treaty has been a great source of disharmony between Maori and Pakeha. It was drawn up by a European whose Maori was not fluent and read to chiefs who were unfamiliar with instruments of diplomacy. The greatest ambiguities turned on ideas of sovereignty and ownership alien to the Maori.
The British understood themselves to be offering protection in return for sovereignty and the right to use or buy land at nominal cost. Inthe Waitangi Tribunal was established to hear claims of abuse of the treaty.
Many claims have resulted in return of land, cash compensation, restoration of rights to natural resources, and the handing over of businesses to Maori. In the s, there were fierce battles between Maori and Europeans.
Although the British had an advantage in arms, Maori had an advantage in tactics, and their pa fortresses of earth and wooden palisades absorbed artillery shells.
The British infantry had to get past the palisades and grapple hand to hand with Maori warriors. Inthe first General Assembly opened and the first governor was appointed. InHenry Sewell became the first prime minister. Wars broke out again in the s on North Island, but they were quickly suppressed. Inthe capital was transferred from Auckland to Wellington, which was considered more central. Outbursts of Maori resistance were led by charismatic prophets—military leaders such as Te Kooti.
However, under the second term of Thomas Grey, a division of the country into provinces and districts and the formation of a parliament with four Maori seats created a stable and unified colony.
The last British Australian troops left in That year a national university was established. Women were enfranchised in Culturally, the ideals of Europe were adhered to. European craftsmen built mansions for newly enriched land holders, bankers, gold dealers, and politicians. The Mechanics Institute and lending libraries were established, and cities, such as Dunedin, were built. Maori have had their own parliamentary party, are members of parliament, and have sought to introduce elements of Maori culture into debates.
National identity involves icons more than institutions. Sportspersons in general are iconic national identities, with Sir Edmund Hillary at the summit. Intermarriage between Europeans and Maori has been common since the first contact. New Zealand used to boast that it was completely without racial prejudice. However, "Maori radicals," often with university training, saw the differentials in school conditions and funding, knew about living conditions in low-income state-assisted housing, and voiced their concerns.
A row of typical houses in Dunedin, of the colonial villa verandah style. There were protests, marches, and sit-ins. Maori are still relatively underprivileged, but they are being given access to opportunities for education and high-profile jobs in politics and business. Basically, they see themselves as being in New Zealand temporarily to earn money to send their children to school, but many remain permanently. Pacific Islanders tend to be concentrated in and around Auckland and Wellington.
They are ghettoized and cling to their Christian views and cultural ways—Polynesian but not identical to each other or to Maori.
Maori Marriage Customs | NZETC
Urban life, poverty, large families, and a large percentage of teenagers have led to ethnically based conflict in the cities. The recent high-profile immigration of Asians, many of them wealthy, has been accompanied by some ethnic tension. Gang organization is a feature of the culture. Each gang, however, views each "chapter" as a family, or whanau. The White Knights is a Pakeha gang that tends toward machismo and racism. Leather jackets, patches, and motorcycles are the chief ritual objects.
Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space Despite the rural image, 86 percent of the people live in the five main urban centers: Auckland one million peopleWellington nearly, Christchurch, Hamilton, and DunedinVernacular architecture has involved the colonial villa verandah style: State housing provided a standardized bungalow-style house often made of brick and rented to low-income families. These houses have been privatized. The only distinctive style of architecture is the Maori marae.
Its elaborately carved timbers represent origin myths and genealogies.
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There, a communal sleeping area, and a strict etiquette of greeting, precedence, speechmaking, and farewell is preserved. New Zealanders like close contact. As Europeans have become fifth-generation descendants, it has become increasingly important to them to represent their ancestors.
Both Maori and Pakeha households are not complete without pictures of significant ancestors. Contemporary marae architecture derives from the elaborately carved storehouses and chiefs' houses of earlier times. New Zealanders are inveterate trampers and campers. Countless tracks are maintained by the Department of Conservation or by local enthusiasts.
The geometry of the landscape and the sense that it is very different from the city has been the most powerful influence on a unique style of painting. New Zealanders try to have a hideaway cabin by the lake, the sea, or the stream. In North Island, this is known as a bach; in the South Island, as a crib. There is usually no running water or electricity. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Beforethe diet was based on meat, potatoes, temperate climate vegetables in season cabbage, peas, beans, carrots, spinach, cauliflower, and broccolibread, fruits in season, dairy products, and fish.
Chicken was a restaurant delicacy, and the favorite fast food was the meat pie. Beverages were tea and beer.
Sincethe cuisine has opened up to include a range of tropical and subtropical fruits, vegetables, and spices. It has taken advantage of its Mediterranean climate to produce wine. Food items are readily available in supermarkets.
There are ubiquitous fast-food restaurants. However, there is no New Zealand cuisine. Christmas features the presentation of the turkey or ham, followed by the Christmas pudding.
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- Page 1. Marriage in traditional Māori society
The Sunday roast is still served in the British tradition. The Maori cuisine is based on seafood, mutton birds young petrelswild pork or fowl, fat lamb, and kumara. The method of cooking is the earth oven hangi in which stones are heated by fire, the fire is extinguished so that the stones steam, and a large sealed basket containing the food is buried over the stones and left to cook for several hours.
When Maori gather for meetings on the marae, men and women jointly help prepare the food; men dig the hole, place the stones, and bury and remove the food. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Otherwise, there is the availability of hot cross buns at Easter. New Zealand is an exporter of dairy, meat, fish, and fruit products, which now include processed foods such as wine, deer velvet, venison, smoked and pickled seafood, cheeses, and yogurt.
Multinational food companies are moving their processing plants to Australia so that New Zealand-grown food often finds its way back via that country. Logging of plantation pine forests is a major industry, but relatively little processing is carried out.
Thus, the food supply is in surplus, and imports are largely luxury items or processed items from Australia or "fresh" fruits and vegetables out of season. Reforms in the s encouraged a reduction in the farming sector because of the weakening of the European and British markets for primary produce. It was proposed to industrialize New Zealand. Apart from oil and natural gas finds and one aluminum smelter, heavy industry is not viable.
Manufacturing, assembly, and processing have been encouraged, but since they rely on imported machinery and services, this has not been successful. Motor car assembly and light engineering especially electrical and electronic appliances are the basis of the industrial sector. The fastest growing sector of the economy is service: Almost every household gardens and produces some fresh food for itself.
Gardening is a universal hobby. Land Tenure and Property. Under a clause in the Treaty of Waitangi, the Crown had the exclusive right to extinguish Maori title in land. Under these terms, the Crown had a monopoly over land purchases while bestowing title to land valid in English common law.
The Crown became the largest landowner. In Maori land tenure, tribal boundaries were defined by the putative area settled and utilized by the ancestors, modified by wars and invasions. An individual may claim the use of and the right to burial in the ancestral lands of either parent.
The purchase of Maori land by the government created further fragmentation, and the Waitangi Tribunal has been set up to hear claims for compensation. Since the treaty was signed in and purchases were made until recently, and since Maori have become urbanized, the legitimacy of land claims is complex. Nevertheless, the sense of belonging to one area, the region of the ancestors, still is strong and is finding echoes among the Pakeha.
Having reached a fifth generation of settlement, many families see themselves centered in the areas where they first arrived; as Maori have tribal hui gatheringsEuropeans have family reunions. Other land can be bought and sold. Inheritance by individuals is entirely discretionary among both Maori and Pakeha, and all ownership follows the pattern of English common law. Crown land is managed by the relevant agencies departments of conservation, forestry, agriculture, and fisheries ; iwi lands are managed by elders kaumatuaincreasingly on a commercial basis.
New Zealand is a primary producer and exporter of meat, dairy products, wool, hides, fish and aquatic invertebrates, wood, fruit, aluminum, and fuels. Tourism is a growing industry. Processing goods to a second stage or final stage occurs in the dairy industry. Alumina is processed to ingots for export.
Cattle is processed for meat for export or for pet food. Wood converted to wood chips is exported for newsprint. Imported parts are assembled as automobiles and electrical and electronic goods. Chemicals are processed for fertilizers. The formerly powerful trade unions are now toothless. New Zealand is a monetarist economy that is "restructuring" industries and businesses through the increased use of electronic information and communications procedures and American-inspired management techniques.
Jobs are increasingly specialized, requiring certification or on-the-job training. An emphasis on strategy in marketing, stock keeping, accounting, and management rather than on-the-floor production has emphasized and rewarded the managerial class. Computer skills are virtually mandatory. Inunemployment was 6. Social Stratification Classes and Castes. New Zealand no longer is considered a welfare state in which all are equal.
Ethnic Maori, Pacific Islander poverty is evident in A worker removes bird protection nets from wine grapes in a vineyard. New Zealand's Mediterranean climate is conducive to wine producing. New Zealand has a well-established class society based on income. Cities have developed a "first settler" elite of "old" families claiming prestige and status and occupying the inner ring of the city.
Not all are wealthy. Maori maintain a status structure based on mana inherited or earned and respect of older for younger, female for malethough this has largely broken down in the cities.
Symbols of Social Stratification. There are ostentatious houses and expensive cars in some areas. The Maori chiefly class rangatira and chiefs ariki wear a feathered cloak as do honored Pakeha on special marae occasions. Cultural performances of Maori dances include the traditional kilt male and apron female. New Zealand is a member of the British Commonwealth, and the sovereign is represented by a governor general. Within the Commonwealth, New Zealand is autonomous and is governed by a house of representatives with one hundred twenty elected members of parliament from six political parties.
The present government is the first to be elected under a system of proportional representation. A clear majority under this system is unlikely, and the government usually is a coalition. Leadership and Political Officials. The national government is divided between executive elected and administrative officers.
It is headed by a prime minister, twenty cabinet ministers, and several ministers outside the cabinet. Below these are regional government bodies divided into cities and districts led by mayors and councillors.
Government departments are run on a day-to-day basis by chief executives recommended by the state services commissioner. Social Problems and Control. The Privy Council in London is the final court of appeal but may deliver only an opinion, not a judgment. The New Zealand Court of Appeal is the highest national appeals court.
Its findings must be observed by the High Court. The High Court holds hearings in the main centers. There are district courts localemployment courts, family courts, youth courts, Maori land courts, and environment courts.
There are also over one hundred tribunals dealing with small claims and complaints. Community law centers, originally set up by law students, give legal advice to those who cannot afford lawyers. There are also victim support groups. The most notable effort at informal social control has been the attempt by Maori to be allowed to exercise whanau family authority over accused and accuser in the context of the marae, where the whanau confront each other and elders seek a settlement.
The country is divided into four police region, and there are about 6, full-time officers. There are seventeen armed offenders squads that are called out when firearms are involved. Despite the relationship ending, Sackett, a self-proclaimed introvert, is not against internet dating.
She is more likely to be social online than to go out and talk to strangers. So how do you feel about dating and never doing this again? The year-old fell in love with a fellow eco-warrior only to discover that she was a completely different person.
Matt was sitting inside on a rainy Auckland day in September when he decided to have a look at planetearthsingles. He thought it'd be cool to live in Costa Rica so he looked through profiles there. One woman stuck out as being attractive and lovely. She was a year-old Canadian woman living in a remote eco-house in the Central American country.
They launched into a month of intense communication. Matt said they were sending photos, calling and face-timing. The woman was warm, friendly and seemed just as enthusiastic about him as he was about her. They talked about how they wanted to live off the grid, grow their own vegetables and keep chickens. It was very intense.