Rockabye (song) - Wikipedia
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The Paraguayan people trace their origins to the children of those unions. National traditions of autonomy and pride also have their origins in the early colonial years. Distant from colonial centers and lacking the mineral wealth of other regions, the colony remained isolated and impoverished. The Spanish landowners and encomenderos recipients of Colonial grants to the labor and other tribute of specified indigenous groups sometimes overruled and even overthrew the appointed governor.
Colonial politics were tumultuous, with intense rivalry among the early conquerors and between the settlers and their economic rivals, notably the Jesuit missions. Colonists also chafed under the economic dominance of Buenos Aires and taxation of their exports by the Argentinians. The colony faced military threats from hostile indigenous peoples, Brazilian slave hunters, and Portuguese attempts to annex part of the colony.
Left to their own devices by the Spanish, the colonists had to defend themselves against those threats by raising citizen militias and arming themselves as best they could, and as a result the colony has been described as the most militarized in Latin America. The colony was so impoverished and isolated that visitors commented on the obsolescence of the colonists' arms.
Until the final years of the colonial period, barter was the normal means of exchange and the economy was based largely on subsistence activities. This period thus established the tradition of ethnic mixing, local self-sufficiency based on isolation and poverty, the need to defend life and land against continuous threat, and resentment of economic exploitation by Brazil and Argentina.
These orientations were reinforced by the experiences of the nineteenth century. After Argentinians deposed the Spanish viceroy inthey attempted to extend their control to include the territory of Paraguay.
Paraguayans resisted and in defeated the Argentinian army at the battle of Paraguari. In May of that year, Paraguayans overthrew the last Spanish governor. Popular, iron-fisted, and fiercely nationalistic, Francia implemented policies that benefitted ordinary residents while limiting or destroying the power of the Spanish and creole elites, the Catholic Church, the mercantile houses, and the landed estates.
Although he was derided by foreign critics and enemies as an isolationist madman who drove his country into poverty, scholars now argue that Francia expanded internal and external trade. However, he permitted trade only under his supervision, guaranteeing that the nation reaped the benefits, and strictly controlled the movements of foreigners in the national territory.
This disastrous war resulted in the death of most Paraguayan men and many women and children and destroyed the nation's economy.
Paraguay police shoot dead opposition party leader
It also ended Paraguay's brief period of self-determination and relatively egalitarian prosperity. Only the intervention of the U. Hayes, in prevented Argentina from claiming a large part of western Paraguay. Argentina became the middleman for most of Paraguay's international trade, and foreigners acquired vast expanses of the nation's land. The War of the Triple Alliance left Paraguay a nation largely of small farmers engaged in the production of basic food crops for subsistence and local trade.
Ethnically and culturally, the population was homogeneous, with the family serving as the basic socioeconomic unit. Although the small political elite that emerged after the war emulated European styles, the vast majority of the population spoke Guarani and led a subsistence lifestyle based on indigenous and Spanish customs interwoven by the hardships of life on an isolated and impoverished frontier. The national identity derives from these historical antecedents.
Although the Guarani language is its most salient symbol, that identity is not based on an actual or mythologized pre-Columbian Guarani past.
Instead, it has its origins in the fusion of indigenous and Spanish peoples in colonial times and was shaped by threats to territory and sovereignty from the earliest colonial times.
The strong sense of national identity also has been nurtured by the homogeneity of the population throughout the country's modern history.
Despite the alliance of the Guarani and Spanish peoples that gave rise to the nation, Paraguayan relations with indigenous peoples typically have been marked by hostility and exploitation. Spanish colonists faced continual threats from the indigenous groups in the Chaco and repeatedly launched armed campaigns against them. Although the Guarani gave women to the Spanish to cement their alliance, the Spanish took many more women, as well as food and other goods, by force.
The Spanish also quickly organized to establish their control over Guarani labor through the encomienda system. While Francia recognized the land claims of some indigenous villages, Paraguayans later appropriated indigenous land through force, fraud, and bureaucratic maneuvers.
Indigenous peoples remain at the fringes of the national society. Relations with Mennonite and Japanese settlers have been limited to occasional bureaucratic and economic transactions.
These immigrant enclaves, located primarily in remote rural areas, maintain their own economic, social, and cultural institutions and in most cases have greater economic resources than do the surrounding Paraguayan communities made up primarily of small farmers.
Intermarriage is rare and is disapproved. Paraguayans perceive the immigrants as disdaining and rejecting the national culture. In the s and s, critics charged that the influx of Brazilian immigrants threatened Paraguayan culture and national sovereignty in the eastern frontier region. However, most of those immigrants settled in ethnically homogenous communities, and there was little direct contact between them and the local population. Although there have been some confrontations between Paraguayan and Brazilian farmers over land, most conflicts have involved large tracts of land claimed by absentee owners rather than land farmed by immigrant settlers.
Most lived on farmsteads in small adobe houses with palm-thatched roofs, with their fields surrounding the house. Towns were of typical Spanish colonial design, built around a central plaza and home to a few administrative, craft, and professional workers and shopkeepers.
Since the s, the population has become increasingly urban, and byjust over 50 percent lived in urban areas. The extension of roads, the construction of massive A brick kiln. Ciudad del Este, founded inis now the second largest city and a major commercial center, with an estimated population ofFood and Economy Food in Daily Life. Corn, mandioca cassavaand beef form the basic diet. The main meal of the day is eaten at noon and usually includes corn- or mandioca -based food. A wide variety of tropical and semitropical fruits also are eaten.
The leaves also may be toasted and boiled to make a tea that is served at breakfast or for a late afternoon snack.
Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Special family celebrations and social gatherings call for an asado, or barbecue, with beef roasted over open fires and accompanied by boiled mandioca and sopa paraguaya. Chipa traditionally is prepared for the major religious holidays of Christmas and Holy Week. Special meals during these holidays also may include an asado of beef or a pit-roasted pig.
Paraguay's currency is the guarani, with an exchange rate of approximately guarancies to one U. Until recently the economy was primarily rural and agricultural. The majority of the population, peasant farmers, produced subsistence crops as well as cash crops of cotton or tobacco. Approximately 40 percent of the population is still involved in agriculture, and the majority are small farmers who engage to some degree in subsistence production.
Agriculture, together with forestry, hunting, and fishing, accounts for 25 percent of the gross national product GDP and nearly all exports. Paraguay has few mineral resources, but its rivers have made hydroelectric power generation a major source of revenue.
The manufacturing sector is small 15 percent of GDP. The economy also has a very large informal sector composed of thousands of urban street vendors, domestic workers, and microenterprises. An estimated 10 percent of the labor force was unemployed inand almost half was underemployed. Despite government promises of reform, public sector employment, long a major source of political patronage, has continued to grow, increasing 17 percent from to Although the country is largely self-sufficient in the basic foodstuffs of corn, mandioca, and wheat, it depends on imports for processed foods, other consumer goods, capital goods, and fuels.
Although many small farmers continue to rely on their own production for food, they have been drawn into the market economy to purchase processed goods such as soap, cooking oil, clothing, medicine, and other basic consumer items. Land Tenure and Property. Land distribution is among the most unequal in Latin America.
According to the agricultural census, 77 percent of the agricultural land was owned by barely 1 percent of the population. At the other extreme, small farms of less than Although the system of land tenure is based on private property, common practice and historical tradition play an important role in shaping notions of land rights.
Peasants have long claimed the right to occupy unused public lands for agricultural purposes. Mechanisms for formalizing occupation rights were specified in twentieth century legal codes and the constitution, which recognized the right of every citizen to a plot of land. The right to own land for investment or speculation is viewed by the majority of the rural population as secondary to the right of peasants to use land for subsistence.
While some peasants own clear title to the land they cultivate and some rent or sharecrop, informal occupation of land is widespread.
The private property regimen is complicated by a long history of bureaucratic fraud and ineptitude. During the Stroessner dictatorship —large tracts of land were illegally transferred to Stroessner's relatives and cronies, and some peasant and indigenous communities were violently displaced as powerful military figures took over their lands.
Although most land claims have been regularized in central Paraguay, conflict over land continues to be a source of unrest in the eastern and northern frontier regions, where many titles are of questionable origin.
Indigenous groups have lost vast expanses of their land and face legal and physical threats as a result of their efforts to gain recognition of their claims. Agriculture and hydroelectric power account for the majority of commercial production. Major agricultural goods produced for sale include grains, oilseeds soybeanscotton, sugarcane, tobacco, meat and poultry, mandioca, fruits and vegetables, lumber, eggs, and milk.
Large estates and immigrant settlers produce most of the grains, oilseeds, and beef. The Mennonites are known for dairy production. Small farmers produce mandioca, cotton, tobacco, and sugarcane as well as fruits and vegetables for sale on the domestic market.
A multitude of microenterprises and artisans produce bricks for construction, clothing, furniture, and other small consumer items.
Because of lax border controls and low tariffs, resale and transshipment of goods account for a significant part of the commercial economy. These activities range from illicit transshipment of cocaine and other drugs from producing countries to the markets of North America and Europe to the resale of clothing, vegetables, and other inexpensive consumer items by individuals who purchase them in Brazil or Argentina and bring them into the country without paying import duties.
Aside from hydroelectric power generation, the major industries are heavily dependent on the agricultural sector. Small industries process flour, beer, cigarettes, soap, shoes, and furniture. There is some oilseed processing, meatpacking, and textile production, but most of the beef, cotton, and soybeans are exported in their raw state rather than being processed domestically.
No reliable figures on international trade exist because a large part of that trade consists of the reexportation and transshipment of licit and illicit goods. The major recorded exports include soybeans and cotton, meat products, and timber. Brazil is the most important trade partner, followed by the Netherlands, which imports soybeans for crushing. Unrecorded reexports include a wide variety of goods that range from cigarettes to automobiles, contraband compact discs, and drugs.
Paraguay's major imports include machinery, vehicles, spare parts, fuels and lubricants, and alcoholic beverages and tobacco, much of which is reexported. The capital is the center of religious and educational institutions, commerce, and industry as well as government. Argentina provide most of Paraguay's imports, followed by the United States and Japan. Informal international trade centers on Ciudad del Este, which depends heavily on shopping "tourism.
This trade, along with illicit trade through the area, has earned Ciudad del Este notoriety as a smuggler's paradise. Shopping tourism declined in and subsequent years, because of weakening economic growth in Brazil and Argentina and stricter controls by Brazilian authorities. A person's economic position depends primarily on education and social status, with access to many positions in the government bureaucracy and state enterprises and sometimes private enterprises also dependent on a personal connection with politically powerful benefactors.
Among the poor and working classes, young children are expected to help assure family survival by assisting in agricultural production or working outside the home. Among small farmers, most agricultural labor is provided by family members.
However, peasant farmers still practice a form of cooperative labor known as minga, in which at critical times in the agricultural cycle neighbors or kin work together to prepare or harvest each other's fields. Social Stratification Classes and Castes. Wealth and income distribution are extremely unequal. A small elite owns most of the land and the commercial wealth and reaped most of the benefits of economic growth in recent decades.
Indigenous peoples are the most impoverished. Mennonite and Japanese immigrants have established thriving agricultural colonies, while the more recent Korean, Chinese, and Arab immigrant groups are concentrated in urban commercial activities and reexportation.
Brazilian immigrants are disproportionately concentrated in midsize commercial farming enterprises but also include extremely impoverished small farmers and laborers as well as wealthy landowners and middle-class entrepreneurs. Symbols of Social Stratification.
Language is an important marker of social status. Members of the upper classes primarily speak Spanish in public and in private, although they may understand Guarani. Members of the poorer social groups speak Guarani primarily or exclusively, and may have only a limited understanding of Spanish. The social distance between classes has traditionally been extreme, and peasants or workers were expected to show deference toward members of the political and landowning elite.
The executive branch consists of the president and vice president, who are directly elected to five-year terms, and a council of ministers appointed by the president.
The legislative branch is made up of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, which also are directly elected for five-year terms. The judiciary, including the Supreme Court, is appointed. InParaguay initiated direct election of departmental and municipal executives and councils. Contemporary political life has been shaped by General Alfredo Stroessner's thirty-five year dictatorship. After assuming power in a military coup inStroessner ensured his control by fusing the ruling Colorado Party, government bureaucracies, and the military.
Compliance to his personable authoritarian rule was achieved through a combination of brutal repression and patronage. Stroessner assured the allegiance of top military leaders and political cronies through grants of land, lucrative state contracts, and control of profitable smuggling activities.
Benefits ranging from government posts to seeds were distributed to Colorado Party supporters, with the patron-client chains extending down to the poorest neighborhoods and rural towns. Freedom of the press, freedom of association, and other basic rights are recognized, and civilian officials have gained office through open elections. However, the Colorado Party remains strongly entrenched, and many of Stroessner's top allies and officials are still in high government and party posts.
Leadership and Political Officials. Affiliation with a political party commonly is based on family and personal ties. Both parties have hierarchical organizations with competing internal factions. Ina new party, the Encuentro Nacional, was formed to challenge the traditional parties. Its strongest support is among younger, more educated urban voters.
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Several smaller parties also exist. There is little substantive difference among the major parties. Access to leadership positions is through the party hierarchy and personal ties. Social Problems and Control. Paraguay has a civilian police force responsible for public order and a legal system based on French and Roman law. At the local level, justices of the peace and magistrates are responsible for administrative and criminal proceedings.
There are also courts of appeal, the Tribunal of Jurors and Judges of First Instance, and judges of arbitration. Street crime and violence increased during the s with worsening economic conditions.
The police force is widely perceived as corrupt and complicit in some crime. The judiciary has been the least affected among all the branches of government by the post-Stroessner political reforms, and local magistrates and justices of the peace are seen by many people as available for purchase, especially in rural areas. Government corruption at all levels is pervasive and contributes to widespread public cynicism toward politics and government. Conflict over land intensified dramatically in the s, especially in the north and the eastern border region.
While there have been reports of peasant farmers taking up arms, most of the violence has been directed against them. Landowners whether or not they have legitimate title have employed private gunmen to defend their claims and have forcibly and illegally evicted occupants and destroyed their homes and crops. In the early s, a number of peasant leaders were assassinated. The government has made no significant moves toward land reform and has acted slowly to resolve conflicting claims.
A muchacho herding cattle into a corral. Under Stroessner, Paraguay was one of the most heavily militarized nations in the world, with an extremely high ratio of police and military personnel to civilian population.
Military personnel enjoyed great benefits and power. Efforts to depoliticize the military since have been tenuous, and military privileges remain considerable. Although most of the military remained loyal to Wasmosy and the coup was unsuccessful, Oviedo later ran for and the won the Colorado Party's nomination for president. His candidacy eventually was nullified and he was imprisoned, but the resultant political uncertainty immobilized the government.
Although the military has refrained from intervening directly in recent political affairs, it is never far from the halls of power. Social Welfare and Change Programs The government runs a system of underfunded and understaffed public health posts and hospitals and provides retirement benefits for employees of the government and state enterprises and veterans of the Chaco War. Nominal government programs to benefit peasants and indigenous peoples are ineffective and corrupt.
Tyler immediately loved Jam Band's sound, and wanted to combine the two bands. In Octoberthe bands met up again and considered the proposition. Tyler, who had been a drummer and backup singer in Chain Reaction, adamantly refused to play drums in this new band, insisting that he would take part only if he could be frontman and lead vocalist. The others agreed, and a new band was formed. The band moved into a home together at Commonwealth Avenue  in Boston, where they wrote and rehearsed music together and relaxed in between shows.
Kramer said that, when he was in school, he would write the word "aerosmith" all over his notebooks. Initially, Kramer's bandmates were unimpressed; they all thought he was referring to the Sinclair Lewis novel they were required to read in high school English class.
After forming the band and finalizing the lineup inthe band started to garner some local success doing live shows. Aerosmith was not originally scheduled to play that night at the club, but they paid out of their own pockets to secure a place on the bill, reportedly the only band ever to do so at Max's. Too Bad ", darker songs that have become staples in the band's live shows. Bootleg — [ edit ] Steven Tyler and Joe Perry performing live in concert.
InAerosmith's fourth album was Rockswhich "captured Aerosmith at their most raw and rocking". Its recording was affected by the band's excesses, but the record still had memorable moments. Tyler and Perry became known as " the Toxic Twins " due to their notorious abuse of drugs on and off the stage. It makes a good headline — but, practically speaking, that was probably a very small portion of where we spent our money. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band movie. Bootlegissued incaptured the band's rawness  during the Draw the Line tour.
The standalone single " Chip Away the Stone ", also released incharted at number As the decade was about to conclude, the band's drug use began taking its toll, and tensions were slowly coming to a head. The band's touring schedule brought them to Cleveland Stadium on July 28,where they headlined the World Series of Rock festival.
Following the show, Tyler and Perry got into a heated argument when Tyler confronted Perry about his wife's antics, and after the course of the argument, Perry left Aerosmith while Tyler claims in his autobiography that he fired Perry from the band.
Upon his departure, Perry took some of the music that he had written with him. Rhythm guitarist Brad Whitford took over some of the lead parts, and Richie Supathe band's longtime writing partner, filled in where needed until the band was able to hire Jimmy Crespo to take over as the next full-time guitarist. Night in the Ruts was released in Novemberbut only managed to sell enough records to be certified gold at the time, although it would eventually sell enough copies to be certified platinum by The only single the album spawned, a cover of " Remember Walking in the Sand " by the Shangri-Laspeaked at number 67 on the Billboard Hot Steven Tyler's drug issues were starting to affect his performance and songwriting, and he reached rock bottom inwhen he collapsed on stage during a show in Portland, Maineand did not get up for the remainder of the set.
While the compilation didn't chart very high initially, it gained popularity later, and went on to become the band's best selling album in the United States, with sales of 11 million copies. However, after the first song for the album, " Lightning Strikes ", was recorded, Brad Whitford left the band, and decided to form a duo with Derek St. Holmeswith whom he recorded a self-titled albumwhich failed to garner much interest.