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Dry unit weight, 3. Concrete block RTKs of dimensions: These 13 units were first weighed when they were dry and then immersed in water for 48 hours. Subsequently, they were drained and weighed at: Furthermore, by comparing their response to water absorption with respect to that of common brick, adobe brick and concrete blocks, it is much better, especially specimens of mixtures of higher density: Simple mechanical compaction test A mechanical compaction test is performed Table 3 in which the behaviour of three blocks is tested.
Results of simple mechanical compaction test. Therefore, on considering that the chosen dosage is one that includes a higher percentage of EPS aggregates, the act of adding EPS waste affects the mechanical strength of the specimens, but when obtaining the breaking pressure of the gross section, this is limited to 3 MPa, which does not exclude them from functioning as non-bearing blocks.
Preliminary fire tests Preliminary fire tests are conducted without taking the standards into consideration, to study the behaviour of the blocks. Preliminary fire test 1 In this test, the response to a heat source is studied of the 9 samples and traditional pieces. To this end, a direct flame is applied using a butane torch for 5 minutes at a distance of 10 cm.
In all of the pieces, EPS particles near the flame are consumed by fire but do not collapse. Preliminary fire test 2 In this test, the behaviour of the pieces is measured when faced with heat transmission.
The 9 samples and the four traditional pieces are tested through exposure to a heat source over the open top of an electric oven for one hour at a temperature of C. It is important to measure the starting temperature on both the exposed and opposite faces, but it is also a priority in this case to study the variation in heat suffered by the opposite face. Two response groups are obtained: Preliminary fire test 3 In this test, a flame is applied to one of the blocks for 60 minutes on its interior face, measuring the surface temperatures before and after the test on both the side exposed to fire and the opposite face Figure 4.
After 30 minutes of exposure, the surface effects are displayed. Temperature rises on the exposed face from 23 C to C, while the temperature of the opposite side is constant throughout the process at 23 C, registering an increase of 3 C after 60 minutes of exposure.
When the sample is removed from the fire, the heat on the exposed face begins to cool immediately, recovering the initial temperature after minutes, and reaches 36 C after 60 minutes of being removed.
The centre of the block passes from 23 C, at the beginning of the exposure to fire, to 27 C after 60 minutes of exposure, reaching a peak of 40 C after 30 minutes.
It recovers its initial temperature after minutes. Eight samples are tested of 7. This test determines the optical smoke density. According to the value of maximum specific optical density obtained and taking into account the classification proposed by the Technical Unit of Fire Technology of the INTI, the block is classified as Level 1 of the existing four levels: Materials that generate a low amount of smoke, with corrected optical density between 1 andreaching values of 9 and 5 in flame and flameless tests, respectively.
To this end, six samples are tested of 15x45 cm with a thickness of 2. It is deduced that the material has a flame spread index that classifies it as RE2: This rate of flame surface spread arises from a combination of factors derived from the speed of propagation of the flame Fcalled the factor of flame spread, and another factor related to the heat released by the tested material Qand called the factor of heat evolution. In this way, an approximation is sought of the potential thermal conductivity of each of the 9 mixtures.
The location selected is that of the city of Buenos Aires and the block under study has a total thickness of As this is an analysis of thermal transmittance, the other dimensions of the block are of no consequence, since, in theory, 1 m2 of wall is analysed. Thermal bridges are not included in the calculation since they are not established in current regulations.
The first mixture has a ratio of 1: The second has a ratio of 1: In Figure 5in the abscissa, the density values of the mixtures are given, while in the ordinate, the values of conductivity are shown.
It is concluded that the mixtures obtained have similar thermal conductivity to those of concrete with virgin EPS.
Thermal conductivity relation between the concrete of virgin EPS aggregates right-hand side and of that obtained by the new materials that include recycled EPS left-hand side. Mixtures with recycled EPS present values of lambda between 0.
Discussion A new construction material is proposed that is based on cement, and recycled fine aggregates and EPS from CDW through the characterisation of its physical and mechanical properties for different dosages and whose response to the tests performed corresponds to those of similar traditional pieces.
In the case of Argentina, the habitual use of CDW is in the form of aggregates of screeds: For the creation of samples, a large amount of preparation work of the recycled added material is necessary since there is no management of CDW in Argentina, which leads to a great waste of time because of the variety and randomness in the characteristics of rubble.
In agreement with statements by other researchers Bezerra,with the addition of EPS, improvements in the thermal properties of samples with respect to traditional products can be attained, and hence the inclusion of EPS in building envelopes promotes energy efficiency. Furthermore, as other researchers conclude Aliabdo et al.
Furthermore, with the addition of these ceramic aggregates, then the water absorption is increased; when EPS is added to the samples, the water absorption remains similar to that of traditional products: Conclusions The experimental characterisation of this new construction material based on cement, recycled fine aggregates and EPS of CDW from rehabilitation work reveals that: The addition of recycled EPS aggregates hinders the adhesion of the mixtures with respect to the reference materials without these aggregates.
It is therefore necessary to increase the water-cement ratio and to incorporate vinyl additives that improve the conglomeration of the mixtures. The addition of EPS in the mixture reduces the degree of water absorption in comparison with samples with only ceramic aggregates added.
The ceramic aggregate samples provoke a better response than those of "adobe" bricks, concrete blocks, and simple hollow bricks, since they obtain similar behaviour to that of common bricks. Regarding fire behaviour, despite the addition of EPS, these samples are classified as materials with very low smoke emissions and low flame spread. The addition of EPS in the mixture improves the thermal conductivity of the block with respect to traditional pieces, thus the thermal properties of recycled blocks are improved.
Even when recycled EPS is used, the lambda values are equivalent to or even lower than those of the samples that include virgin EPS. Utilization of crushed clay brick in concrete industry.
Futuro En Vivo, Julio. Regarding the waste of resources, ARSAE-MG found, among other issues, that the SAAE of Itabira has high technical losses, meaning that part of the costs related to water pumping and chemical products for the treatment could stop being spent.
Thus, in the tariff review, in the items of electricity costs and treatment materials, a Reducer of Losses Rp has been applied, and these costs were not fully accepted. It was also emphasized that, regarding non-technical losses defined by ARSAE-MG as losses related to micro measurement less than the volume consumed by usersalthough its reduction does not generate cost savings, it makes reduction of tariffs possible by expanding the billed volume.
Finally, the agency warned that the provider must "adopt strict measures to control losses technical and non-technical in order to avoid incurring higher costs than those it allows for". Among the several factors that influence apparent water loss by under-registration, due to the importance attributed to some of them by the literature, and their relation to the subject of this research, three have been chosen to be examined in detail, namely: Maximum flow rate Qmax: Based on those concepts, it can be seen that if water flows through the water meter at a lower flow rate than the start of the movement' flow, no volume is recorded by the equipment, and if this flow falls within a range between the Start of the movement's flow and the minimum flow rate, even though the water meter registers a specific volume, it can be different from the volume that actually crossed the equipment, extrapolating the measurement errors permitted for other flow rates.
The minimum and transitional water meter flow rates vary according to the metrological class and nominal flow thereof. Therefore, it follows that a high percentage of apparent water loss through under-registration by a water meter in a specific connection may indicate inadequacy of the metrological class of the installed equipment for the customer's consumption profile.
Coelho highlighted the need to encourage research in order to determine the typical consumption characteristics of each region and, based on that, make a proper dimensioning, so that the measuring ranges of water meters coincide as much as possible with their workflows. The study observed that failing to consider the data related to customer's consumption profile and opting for a water meter capable of registering very high flow rates as a "security measure", may mean neglecting small flows and facilitating the occurrence of under-registration.
It must also be taken into account that, as corroborated by PNCDA athe choice, for example, of a metrological Class C water meter, more sensitive to low flow rates, makes the installation more expensive. Therefore, it must verified whether the volumes measured at lower flow rates are sufficient to make that a profitable option; a situation which obviously varies according to the customers' consumption profiles.
In that respect, Miranda recommended the development of studies to determine the under-registration of water meters at the minimum flow rate in several typical situations, and Depexe and Gasparini suggested the investigation of the viability of replacing metrological Class B water meters with class C water meters, mainly for connections with higher average consumption.
The author found that, on average, the Class C equipment recorded a volume In this study, it was concluded that the price difference between Class C and Class B water meters would be paid off in about five months. In the study conducted by Depexe and Gasparini with data from a water meter network with more than 1 million connections, an average reduction in the micro measured volume of approximately 1. The authors mentioned that Arregui et al.
In a similar vein, Criminisi et al. In their experiment, they found that water meters with less than 5 years use under-registered volumes by 2.
Moreover, the need for water utilities to evaluate losses caused by under-registration in real conditions was emphasized by Coelhowho highlighted the fact that nowadays there is little information about the performance over time of installed water meters or about the various factors that affect the accuracy of such equipment.
According to Mirandathat is why under-registration of the minimum flow rate is very expressive in Brazil. This is because, even if the customer uses water at a flow rate higher than the minimum flow rate of the water meter, if there is a water tank with a float valve installed between the point of consumption and the water meter, the flow will be amortized.
Thus, this flow may become lower than the flow of the start of movement for which the meter is unable to record the volume, or it may fall in the range between the minimum flow and the start of movement flow, for which standard limits for measurement error have not been established and, thus, there can be significant errors.
That is to say, in these cases under-registration can occur and consequently an increase of apparent water losses. In the work of Mutikanga et al. In two other homes that were only supplied at night, according to the authors, the apparent losses due to the use of float valves were negligible.
They also made it clear that if the tank is filled and emptied periodically, measurement errors can be reduced because the refueling generally requires much higher flows than those typical of household water use. Although the use of water tanks with float valves raises apparent water losses in the system, according to Miranda and Koidethis fact alone is not enough for proposing the non-use of domestic water tanks in Brazil.
The same authors mention that besides the existence of large amounts of intermittent systems in the country, there are also implications of an economic and financial order related to the distribution network, since the use of water tanks prevents the adoption of a reinforcement coefficient in dimensioning the pipes, resulting in reduced diameters.
Thus, Hovany and Criminisi et al. Although promising, according to Pereira and Ilhathe main obstacle to the use of high flow float valves is the fact they depend on the final consumer for their proper installation. Having exposed the magnitude of water losses and intervening factors, especially with regard to the portion of apparent losses, this study aimed to analyze specifically, among the variables considered, the influence of the two most amenable to intervention by the water utility, namely: The condominium had 83 active water connections provided with water meters in regular operation.
CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF MEASURES FOR THE REDUCTION OF APPARENT WATER LOSS IN URBAN AREAS
The condominium meters were metrological class B flow velocity, dry-type, with magnetic transmission. Except for one single-jet meter with Qn equal to 0. As the volume of condominium water flowing to the outlets was being registered by the water meters, the first step of this research consisted of installing an electromagnetic macrometer to register the volume of water flowing into the condominium. After that, the daily readings started, Monday through Friday, both from macrometer and from the 83 water meters of the condominium.
At the end of 25 days of reading, new water metrological class C meters, more sensitive to low flows, replaced all the water meters of the condominium. However, the other characteristics of installation were kept unchanged. These Class C water meters were monitored in order to totalize another 25 days of readings.
The total water loss was calculated, for each two sequential days of readings, as being the difference between the macro-measured volume and the sum of the volumes registered by the individual water meters. In order to better base the interpretation of the results of the percentage of the condominium's total water losses, a questionnaire was administered to the joint owners, in which they were questioned about the type of water supply of their homes, to be defined as direct, indirect or mixed.
This method consists of calculating the time required to recover the money invested and paid at the required rate k DPB and its comparison with the maximum tolerated time MTTas follows: Finally, the Selic interest rate of 0. Thus, when they were removed for replacement inthey had different times of use.
In order to evaluate the interference of this variable on the accuracy of the equipment, tests on a laboratory scale were performed on 12 of the 83 water meters. The selected equipments were sent to a laboratory accredited by Inmetro, where they were submitted to the Determination of Errors - Errors' curve test as established by Ordinance n0. For that, the following assumptions were made: The results showed a percentage of Therefore, the mixed supply type prevailed in the study area.
It should be pointed out that although the use of direct feed points in a supply of mixed type can represent a large part of the volume of consumed water - typically such points are located outside and are used for cleaning balconies, washing cars, watering gardens, etc.
On the other hand, the other points, possibly internal to residences, probably correspond to consumption at lower flow rates associated to private water tanks that, together with the continuous supply, favors under-registration by water meters. Regarding the condominium's total water losses, the percentages measured by metrological Class B and Class C meters throughout the monitoring period are shown in FIG.
Condominium water losses before and after the replacement of the metrological Class B water meters with Class C ones Average condominium water losses were Box and whisker plot of water losses in the condominium with micro measurements made by metrological classes B and C water meters.
The time required to recover the capital invested and interest DPB was 5. Distribution of values of time of use of the 83 Class B water meters in the studied water supply sector. From each time of use interval shown in FIG. Indication errors of the 12 Class B water meters selected from among the condominium's 83 Source: It is worthy of note that among the 36 results, 9 errors of indication were positive, that is, water meters measured a higher volume than what actually went through them, in which case the consumers suffer because it leads them to pay for a volume of water not consumed.
Regarding the time of use, the results were more discrepant. For example, the water meter with 9. According to the tests, there is no evidence of correlation between the error of indication and the time of use of the water meters for any of the three flow rates. The null hypothesis H0 was not rejected however.