5 Laboratorio de Ecologia y Genetica de Poblaciones, Centro de Ecologia, demonstrating these behaviors can be requested at [email protected]) .. 2 Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, La Paz, Baja California Sur, to ng/g lipid, which is consistent with the limited data to date on. Powietrzny dramat online dating Virgo Man and Capricorn Woman Poblaciones biologicas yahoo dating Virgo and Capricorn - Compatibility in Sex, Love and. Nemátodos tylenchidos (Tylenchida) parasitando poblaciones de campo de Email Guillermo Reboredo: [email protected] . To the current date there are no reports of presence of Tylenchida in our country, we consider these three genera the first to be cited to Argentina. Aspectos biológicos y morfológicos.
Paleoparasitology data is a valuable source to recover emergence and disappearance of parasite infections through analysis of archaeological remains.
Parasites can be used as biological markers of prehistoric human migrations. They are also indicators of diet, as parasite life cycles are related to specific kinds of food consumed by human groups in the different habitats they occupied. We review paleoparasitological findings in South America, comparing human-host and intestinal parasites with life conditions and environmental relationships through time. Paleoparasitology, coprolites, mummies, infectious diseases, ancient diseases, parasite-human evolution.
Parasites have been found in ancient remains throughout the world Bouchet et al. Coprolites and latrine contents are the main source of intestinal parasite eggs.
Protozoan cysts, however, are not as easy to identify. Other parasites, such as the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi was recovered from mummified tissues and bone fragments by molecular biology techniques Aufderheide et al.
Parasites and parasitic disease have cultural expressions as represented in Moche ceramic art Heck The use of regular parasitological techniques, modified and adapted to paleoparasitological research increased and expanded parasite findings to other kinds of archaeological remains Fugassa et al.
History of Paleoparasites Found on Archaeological Remains Since the first studies in South American human coprolites Pizzi and Schenonepaleoparasitology has developed as a new research line and this new science appeared based on solid data founded on parasite findings from well-dated and well-identified context, as predicted by Cockburn Common wisdom about human health conditions and parasite infections in the New World was challenged by paleoparasitological finds.Estrategia reproductiva R
Hookworm ancylostomidswhipworm Trichuris trichiurapinworm Enterobius vermicularisand roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides were found infecting prehistoric populations both in North and South America. Paleoparasitology focuses on the recovery of parasites from archaeological sites to further elucidate the ancient impacts of parasites on culture. Tracing the origins of parasites is one research thread of importance to paleopathology Reinhard Parasitism has a central role in bioarchaeology Reinhard ; Reinhard and Bryant and has long been recognized as a tool for the archaeologist Reinhard As reviewed by Reinhard and Bryantthe relation between cultural development and the nature of parasitism has long been investigated.
Reinhard first formalized this area of research in the Southwestern United States by testing Cockburn's hypotheses about the impact of agriculture on parasitism.
Reinhard showed that zoonotic infections, long standing in ancient populations, nearly disappeared in horticulturalists as humanspecific parasites emerged. They clearly defined the role of trade, dress, and water contamination on parasitic disease among the Chiribaya of Peru Martinson et al.
Reinhard noted that the most sensational contribution of paleoparasitology was towards a better understanding of the first human migrations to the New World.
PALEOEPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE PARÁSITOS INTESTINALES Y PIOJOS EN SUDAMÉRICA PRECOLOMBINA
Further work by Reinhard and Bryant introduced the concept of pathoecology, which links parasitism to diet, environmental stress, and other culturally-defined behaviors in the definition of ancient disease.
Molecular biology techniques were also applied in diagnosing intestinal parasites. Recently, Leles et al. These findings illustrate the importance of molecular biology techniques in diagnosing parasites in ancient remains.
Molecular biology techniques allow the study of genetic evolution of parasites and the timing of their introduction into human populations Dittmar et al.
By recovering aDNA ancient DNA sequences and genotyping parasites from human remains increases the possibility to reconstruct the early dispersion patterns of parasites Raoult and Drancourt This paper summarizes the extent of the knowledge of intestinal parasite remains from South America. As such, it familiarizes the reader with the current findings of parasites from this ecologically diverse and culturally complex area.
We review intestinal parasite infections in pre-Columbian South America. Paleoparasitological data is used by archaeologists and anthropologists to reconstruct ancient events based on parasite life cycles and biological requirements to maintain transmission from host to host.
Climate changes are also associated with the presence of parasite infections in ancient people. The goal of this paper is to discuss paleoparasitology results in South America aiming to improve techniques and integrate data obtained by the laboratories involved in this matter.
Techniques Used to Analyse Bioarchaeological Material Organic remains were examined by parasitological regular techniques after rehydration using a trisodium phosphate aqueous solution Na3PO According to the nature of the sample, different techniques are recommended. To prevent bacterial and fungal growth or taphonomic processes that may cause DNA degradation, thus interfering in molecular biology technique that may be applied, all the remaining sediment in the jars should be preserved refrigerated Pruvost et al.
In some archaeological contexts, coprolites are the main source for paleoparasitology analysis. For example, in northeasthern Brazil coprolites are found dispersed in archaeological layers under rock-shelters or inside caves Bouchet et al. Mummified bodies are rarely found in Brazilian archaeological sites. Just after death the individual was cremated, buried, or sometimes the ashes were eaten by others Chagnon Paleoparasitological research in Brazil started with an interest in knowing what parasite infections existed before the coming of Europeans and Africans to the Americas Ferreira et al.
Wild animal coprolites were also examined from many archaeological sites, especially focused on parasites of animals that may infect humans Chame ; Sianto et al. Molecular paleoparasitology has a special laboratory to develop techniques and diagnoses in conditions avoiding modern DNA contamination.
A considerable amount of American paleoparasitological data appeared recently in the literature. However as climatic conditions in Patagonia are not conducive to preservation, organic materials are continuously exposed to extreme dryness and cold and sometimes to water percolation. Due to the scarcity of coprolites and other organic material a microscopic method was developed to search for parasites at the Laboratory of Paleoparasitology of the University Nacional de Mar del Plata, Argentina Fugassa et al.
The method used sediments recovered from the pelvic girdle and proved to be effective; it allowed for recovery of parasite eggs from human sacral foramina stored in museum and scientific institutions Jones ; Fugassa, Denegri et al.
The main reason for pursuing paleoparasitological research in Argentina is to understand the impact of disease during the paleoepidemiological transition caused by the contact of Europeans with Patagonian Aborigins. Caral is the oldest city of the western hemisphere, dated of years before present BP Solis et al.
Paleoparasitological research started recently exploring this archaeological site material, and first results are expected to be published soon. Paleoparasitology in Peruvian archaeological remains has a tradition in coprolite Patrucco et al. The main interest of these specialists is plant and food remains and parasite associated with food resources and diet.
Regarding the study of parasites in mummified bodies, the Chinchorro mummies of Northern Chile present an interesting challenge. The most ancient mummies were prepared by defleshing the body to the bones and taking out abdominal viscera so intestinal contents are not expected to be found. Desert climate is especially suitable to preserve coprolites and paleoparasites.
Considering the tradition of paleoparasitological research in Chile, the interests varied from tuberculosis and Chagas disease Rothhammer et al. In all the laboratories involved in paleoparasitologial research, ectoparasites have been studied. Mummies of humans and other animals have been searched for lice, fleas, and other arthropods.
It is important to look for parasites in the wrapping tissues of the mummies and collect sediment samples near the body. Data also showed that Amerindians acquired infections by eating intermediate hosts or being in close contact with vectors and hosts of parasites that infect humans Patrucco et al.
Prehistoric people who lived on the American continent were infected with common bacteria, protozoa, and helminths as in other parts of the world. Although hookworms, pinworm, whipworm, and roundworm infection were the same, prevalence rates among pre-Columbian populations and transmission dynamics should behave in a different way according to the different cultures where they were infecting.
Parasite transmission dynamics was not the same in the city of Caral, in Peru, or in the Atacama Desert where the Chinchorros lived, and in the semi-arid region of Brazilian northeast where hunter-gathering strategy was used by pre-historic groups.
Thus, generalization on parasites and ecology may lead to erroneous interpretations Figure 1 and Table 1. Brazilian groups were numerous and lived in crowded villages before the European continent conquest Heckenberger et al. Contrary to what is the common knowledge, Amerindian groups living in the Brazilian coast where numerous and just before European conquest some groups were displaced to the interior after tribal wars, and in turn exterminated small groups of hunter-gatherers living in caves and rock-shelters Medeiros Map of South America showing the location of paleoparasitological findings listed in Table 1.
Summary of South American paleoparasitological findings. Fugassa, Cicchino et al.
After European contact parasite infections and relative abundance of the common human intestinal worms Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura changed significantly Fugassa et al.
European also caused a reduction of local fauna. Whipworm eggs were the first to be found in a South American mummy, together with Entamoeba coli cysts Pizzi and Schenone Enterobius vermicularis pinworm eggs, curiously, were only found among ancient populations who lived on the Pacific side.
Molecular biology studies, however, showed interesting results, with two different pinworm lineages in the Pacific coast populations. According to the authors, this may be interpreted as the consequence of different origins. Antigens of Giardia sp.
As evidenced by paleoparasitology finds, common human intestinal parasites were infecting South American pre-Columbian populations. Although data are still missing for many South American countries, an interesting paleoparasitological picture has been traced from Argentinean, Bolivian, Brazilian, Chilean, and Peruvian archaeological material Ferreira et al. When these findings are compared with North American paleoparasitology, a similar picture appears and human strategies to confront different environments can be seen between the continents Reinhard They came out of Africa with the peopling of Europe.
However, humans acquired other parasites from animals whenever humans invaded new habitats, adopted new habits, or created new technologies amplifying their range of influence on the environment. Humans adopted food habits according to the occupied region. This is evidenced by coprolite paleoparasitological analysis.
Diphyllobothrium pacificum was a common intestinal infection in the past as it is today in the Pacific coast. The consumption of raw fish is a common habit in many countries and different cultures all over the world.
Diphyllobothrium pacificum human transmission is due to the consumption of raw fish containing parasites. As this parasite was not recorded in modern South American population, the finding was carefully investigated before publishing this information. It is interesting to note that this case of Echinostoma human infection in pre-historic South America was associated with a case of Chagas disease, with intestinal lesions characterized by megacolon Fernandes et al.
In this case two important points should be emphasized: These findings point to the need of further detailed studies at this archaeological site. It includes two families, Sphaerulariidae which the entomoparasitic female everts the uterus that often hipertrophies it and leads an independent life, and Allantonematidae which entomoparasitic female does not evert uterus, and from this family come our nematodes Siddiqi The tylenchids nematodes we found are adult parasitic female with or without juveniles in body cavity of insects; they belong to the family Allantonematidae.
Metaparasitylenchus Wachek, [Nickle, ] Figs. Cephalic region and tail deformed by body expansion Fig. The cuticle may coarsely annulated and wrinkled, but body surface not wavy. The stylet knobbed, usually sunken in body.
The uterus is enormous, filling most of the body cavity Fig. The ovary coiled in anterior region. The tail end conoid-rounded, with a peg-like projection Fig. No male or complete generative cycle in host. It has the body obese, elongate-tuboid, with rounded ends, the surface usually wavy with constrictions and swollen areas at times due to accumulation of eggs and juveniles Fig. The colour of the body is sulphur yellow-brown to dark brown. The stylet sunken into body, conus usually asymmetrical and basal knobs flattened laterally Fig.
The esophagus and intestine degenerate. Vulva indistinct; uterus large, with numerous eggs and sometimes early-stage juveniles Fig. The ovary is reflexed from one to several times, often reaching esophagus region. The female has a long body, elongate cylindroid, partially obese, homomorphic, dorsally arcuate, yellow-brown.
The cuticle is smooth, thick and firm, maintaining cylindroid shape of the body. The cephalic region is conoid-rounded Fig. Vagina short with thick walls. Uterus long, with several synchronous eggs.
Ovary reflexed one time. Tail end conoid and obtuse Fig. No males in host. Newly hatched juveniles with a small slender stylet Fig. Discussion To the current date there are no reports of presence of Tylenchida in our country, we consider these three genera the first to be cited to Argentina.
We observed that Tylenchids nematodes are well represented and diversified in a small number of host species and geographic areas restricted. The genus Metaparasitylenchus is found very closed to Parasitylenchus Micoletzky,which has a stylet present, gonad with short flexure, uterus with few eggs and it has a small parasitic male Harding et al.
The other genus Sulphuretylenchus is characterized by the typical surface with constrictions and swollen areas NickleSiddiqiand Contortylenchus can be identify by the type of ovary that is unique in the genus.
It is usually reflexed one or more times, the oocytes are arranged in two or more rows, the parasitic female is strongly dorsally curved and our species present the juveniles spiraled like a corkscrew MacGuidwin et al. Further studies on the life-cycle of these nematodes and their interactions with ladybirds host are in progress supported by this future molecular study.
Acknowledgements We would like to thank Lic. Luis Giambelluca for photograpied the material.